Metadados não são o conteúdo, são informações sobre o conteúdo

Um arquivo de imagem geralmente contém dados sobre a imagem, isto é, geralmente contém metadados. O padrão Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version 2.3, publicado pela Camera & Imaging Products Association, especifica os formatos a serem usados para imagens, som e tags em câmeras fotográficas digitais e em outros sistemas que lidam com arquivos de imagem e som gravados por câmeras fotográficas digitais. As informações são registradas como tags no arquivo e a cada tag é atribuído um número exclusivo de 2 bytes para identificar o campo.

Referências (sites em inglês)

What Is Photo Metadata?
Metadata is a set of data that describes and gives information about other data. Photo metadata allows information to be transported with an image file, in a way that can be understood by other software, hardware, and end users, regardless of the format. See Get IPTC Photo Metadata.
IPTC Photo Metadata Standard 2017.1
This document specifies metadata properties with a focus on usage with photos, some of these properties are also specified by the IPTC Video Metadata Hub. is dedicated to providing a wide array of useful resources to designers and developers, and is named for the DCF standard Exchangeable Image File Format (EXIF), which stores interchange information in image files.
What is EXIF?
EXIF is an abbreviation for Exchangeable Image File Format. This is the shooting data of digital images – the settings that were applied on your digital camera when you took your photos, including aperture, shutter speed, white balance and flash use. This information is attached to the photo file, like a digital tag, and can be viewed in image editing software.
Exif vocabulary workspace – RDF Schema
Vocabulary to describe an Exif format picture data. All Exif 2.2 tags are defined as RDF properties, as well as several terms to help this schema
Description of Exif file format
Currently, most of new digicams use Exif file format to store images. This specification was made by JEIDA, but there is no open document in internet. So I made tiny description about Exif from some of open documents which can get from internet.
Adobe’s Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is a file labeling technology that lets you embed metadata into files themselves during the content creation process. With an XMP enabled application, your workgroup can capture meaningful information about a project (such as titles and descriptions, searchable keywords, and up-to-date author and copyright information) in a format that is easily understood by your team as well as by software applications, hardware devices, and even file formats. Since early 2012, XMP is also an ISO standard (16684-1).
Dublin Core
The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative provides access to schemas defining DCMI term declarations represented in various schema languages. Schemas are machine-processable specifications which define the structure and syntax of metadata specifications in a formal schema language.
Understanding What is stored in a Canon RAW .CR2 file, How and Why
The .CR2 file format (Canon RAW version 2) is a digital photography RAW format created by Canon. “RAW” here means that this file stores information directly coming from the sensor, almost without processing. RAW files can be seen as a digital negative format, and do not contains a “ready to view” picture, like jpeg.
CIFF – Specification on Image Data File
This document describes the format (CIFF: Camera Image File Format) of the data-files generated by Canon digital cameras.
Version : 1.0 revision 4; Date : December 24, 1997.
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